Detailed view of Plate V
Descriptions des arts et métiers, Volume 1, Art du Boulanger, Jean Bertrand, 1771.
I, eft la ratiffoire pour gratter le pétrin.
( is the scraper used to scrape the doughbox.)
K, eft le coupe-pâte dont on fe fert aux mêmes ufages que de la ratiffoire , & pour couper la pâte afin de la partager.
(is the dough cutter, which is used like the scraper, and to cut and divide the dough.)
L, eft une corbeille pour mettre la pâte, que l'on a féparée du refte, pour faire du gros pain.
( is a basket to put the dough, which has been separated from the rest, to make large loaves of bread.)
M, eft une moindre corbeille où l'on réferve le levain de tout-point, qui eft couvert.
(the smaller basket is a reserve of levain de tout-point (starter from the chef) , which is covered.)
Image and description of Plate IX
Descriptions des arts et métiers, Volume 1, Art du Boulanger, Jean Bertrand, 1771.
A, repréfente un grand rouable pour attirer le feu & la braife du four. (represents a large fire rake to gather the fire and the live embers in the oven.)
B, eft un petit rouable pour attirer la cendre & pour nétoyer le four. (a small fire rake to gather the ash and clean the oven)
C, une grande pelle pour enfourner les pains longs . (a large pelle to bake the long loaves)
D, une grande pelle pour enfourner les gros pains ronds. (a large pelle to bake round loaves)
E, une petite pelle pour enfourner les petits pains.
(a small pelle to bake bread rolls)
F, l'étouifoir pour éteindre la braife qu'oivôte du four. (a vase used to contain and extinguish the live embers from the oven)
G, eft le couvercle de cet étouffoir. (the cover of the coal container.)
H. montre le porte-allume, dans lequel font de petits morceaux de bôîs fécs. (Shows the small stove, in which makes light with small pieces of wood.)
I, la pelle à charbon pour mettre la braife dans l'étonffoir.
(the coal shovel to put the live embers in the container.)
K, le balai pour nétoyer la bouche du four avant d'enfourner.
(the broom to clean the oven opening before baking.)
Fig. 1. Boulanger occupé à pêtrir. (Baker working at the doughbox) A, le pêtrin.(doughbox) B, la pâte.(the dough) C, seau plein d'eau. (bucket of water)
2. Boulanger qui pese la pâte. (Baker scaling/weighing dough)
3. & 4. Duex boulangers occupies a former les pains. (Two bakers forming bread)
D, clayon fur lequel on met les pains ronds dans le four. (Sieve to put round loaves in the oven (not sure if this is correct translation, looks like a flour sieve to me.)
5. Le Fournier devant fon four. (The baker in front of the oven)
Bas de la Planche:
1. Le four vû de face.(oven viewed from the front) A B C D, bouche du four.(oven opening) F E, plaque qui la ferme.(oven door) G H, hotte.(hood) M, cheminée. (chimney)
2. Profil du four. Les mêmes lettres désignent les mê - mes parties qu'à la fig. 1 (Profile of the furnace. The same letters indicates the same parts in fig. 1)
3. Banneton. (basket to hold dough when rising)
4. Baffin (Basin.)
5. Coupe- pâté (dough cutter.)
6. Rable (fire rake)
7. N. 1. A, bluteau (flour bolter)
7. N. 2. AA, profil du blueau ( profile of the bolter.)
8. Ecouvillon (oven brush.)
9. Pêtrin. (kneading box)
10 Pelle de bois a enfourner (baking pelle).
11 Ratiffoire (rake/hoe/scraper)
12 Pelle de tole pour retirer la braife. (shovel to remove the coals)
13 Râpe (rasp)
14. Couteau a chapeller (chapelure) (rasping/chipping knife.)
Baking tools as described in: "A treatise on the art of bread-making: Wherein, the mealing trade, assize laws, and every circumstance connected with the art, is particularly examined.", Abraham Edlin, 1805, pgs 159-162
(numbers 1-6 deal with large bakery ovens in Europe. There is not a picture included in the text to illustrate these items.)
7. A detail of the utensils in use in a bakehouse, may appear uninteresting; and some readers may think it perfectly unnecessary; but those bakers who are solicitous to have good bread, would deem the subject incomplete without noticing them.-The following are the most usual and indispensible requisites.-
8. The seasoning tub. This is of the size and shape of the common wash tub, and is intended for mixing the yeast, salt, and water together before the sponge is set.
9. The seasoning sieve. This is a common sized hair sieve, and is used for straining the mixture through, that is prepared for setting the sponge.
10. The warming pot. This is a large copper pot, lined with tin, capable of holding two pails full of water. It is filled and set in the oven to warm, before the baker sets his sponge. These pots are not in universal use, as some people use earthen ones; but this mode of warming the water, however objectionable, is daily practised by the most respectable bakers in the Metropolis.
11. The brass-wire sieve. This is a large round sieve, covered with a sheet of exceeding fine, wove, brass-wire; its use is not only to sift the flour before it is kneaded ; but also to detect any lumps, or other impurities, that may be contained in it.
12. The pail.
13. The bowl.
14. The spade. These are requisite for a variety of purposes, and are of the same kind as are in common use.
15. The salt bin. This is a bin, with a lid to it, similar to a corn bin. It will hold two sacks of salt, and is usually placed near the* oven, as salt is apt to get moist if not kept in a dry place.
16. The yeast tub. This is a common, six gallon cask with a large bung hole and cover, and is used for preserving the yeast.
17. The dough knife. This is usually of the size of a large carver, with a round point and blunt, like a painter's pallet knife. Its use is to cut the dough, when the baker is kneading it, before he throws it over the sluice board. It is also used, when the bread is weighed, to divide the different portions before they are put in the scale.
18. Scales and weights.
19. The scraper. This is a small scraper, like a garden hoe, fixed in a short wooden handle. Its use is to scrape the sides and bottom of the trough, to prevent the dough from adhering and drying there.
20. Marks. These are four large, tin letters, fixed in a wooden handle. One is marked W. another H. a third S.W. and the fourth M.; and every loaf, whether wheaten, household, standard wheaten, or mixed bread, is obliged, in conformity to act of parliament, to be marked with one of these instruments, before it is put into the oven.
21. The rooker. This is a long piece of iron, in shape somewhat resembling the letter L, fixed in a wooden handle. Its use is to draw out the ashes from all parts of the oven to the mouth.
22. The hoe. This is a piece of iron, similar to a garden hoe, fixed in a handle, partly .wood and partly iron. Its use is to scrape up such ashes and loose dust as escaped the rooker.
23. The swabber. This is a common pole, about eight feet long, with a quantity of wet netting fastened to the end. Its use is to clean out the bottom of the oven, after the ashes have been removed, previous to setting in the bread.
24. Peeles. There are usually four peeles kept in a bakehouse, viz. the quartern peele, to set in the quartern loaves; the half quartern peele, for the half quartern loaves; the drawing peele, for drawing out the bread ; and the peele for placing and removing the tins. The quartern peele is a pole about eight feet long, with a wooden blade, about a foot wide and sixteen inches long, fixed at the end with strong screws. The half quartern peele is of the same kind, about half the length, and much smaller. The drawing peele is a strong pole, ten feet long, with a blade, thicker, broader, and longer than the others; and the peele for setting in the tins has a strong blade of iron, instead of wood, which is fixed with screws into the handle.
25. Tins. These are iron plates of different sizes. The most usual are about an eighth of an inch thick, two feet wide, and three feet long. The rolls, pies, and puddings are put upon these.
Boulanger (Baker) Plate
Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, vol. 2. Denis Diderot, Paris, 1752.
Contenant du Planche
LA vignette représente la boutique d'un boulanger, & les différentes opérations pour faire le pain.
(This picture represents the shop of a baker, & the various operations to make the bread.)