17th Century

Markham, Gervase. The English Hus-wife. London, 1615, 1623, 1631,1637, 1660, 1683. Facsimile, Norwood, NJ.: Walter J. Johnson, 1973. Most popular cookbook of the seventeenth century.
http://www.bib.ub.es/grewe/showbook.pl?gw022  Taken offline in 2009. 

May, Robert. The Accomplisht cook, or The art & mystery of cookery. London : printed for Obadiah Blagrave ..., 1685.
http://www.bib.ub.es/grewe/showbook.pl?gw025  Taken offline in 2009

Martha Washington's booke of cookery and booke of sweetmeats, transcribed by Karen Hess. New York: Columbia University Press, 1981 The manuscript was in the possession of Martha Washington from 1749 to 1799, but the recipes are mostly from the 16th and 17th centuries. Available from online booksellers.

18th Century

Briggs, Richard. The New Art of Cookery, According to the Present Practice. Philadelphia: Spotswood, Campbell and Johnson, 1792.

Clermont, B. The Professed Cook, or the Modern Art of Cookery, Paftry and Confectionary Made Plain and Easy. Third Edition, London, 1776

Kidder, Edward. Receipts of Pastry and Cookery For the Use of his Scholars. (1720-1740)
http://kidderereceiptsofpastry.blogspot.com/2006/06/kidder-e.html (transcribed)
http://oldsite.library.upenn.edu/etext/diaries/kidder/ (actual scan of text)

Glasse, Hannah. The Art of Cookery, Made Plain and Easy…. Printed by Author, London, 1747, 1751, 1755, 1765,1796; Alexandria, Va., 1805. (web link is the 1774 edition)

Moxon, Elizabeth. English Housewifery: Exemplified in above Four Hundred and Fifty Receipts Giving Directions for most Parts of Cookery. 1764.

Raffald, Elizabeth. The Experienced English Housekeeper. London, (1769)., 1789.

Simmons, Amelia. American Cookery. Hartford: Hudson & Goodwin, 1796.

Smith, Eliza. The Compleat Housewife. London, (1727) Seventeen editons. A modern reprint of the 1758 edition retitled The Household Companion. London, Woodsworth Editions, 2006.  Available from online booksellers.

Robert Smiths - Court Cookery or the Compleat English Cook, 1725

The Court & Country Cook, a 1702 English translation of François Massialot's 1691 Le cuisinier royal et bourgeois.  Can be bought online from food historian Carolyn Smith-Kizer.

19th Century  (1800 - 1808)
These cookbooks are written after the colonial period but maintain many of the same foodways of earlier times and often give a clearer understanding of preparing a recipe.

Carter, Susannah. The Frugal Housewife, or Complete Woman Cook. Boston, 1772; New York, 1792; Philadelphia, 1796, 1802, 1803. (1803 edition has American recipes along with the original English recipes) (Reprint of first edition as The Frugal Colonial Housewife, New York: Doubleday, 1976 has inexplicable editing errors -note by Karen Hess)

Emerson, Lucy. The New-England Cookery. Montpelier, Printed For Josiah Parks, 1808.

Glasse, Hannah. The Complete Confectionary: Or the Whole Art of Confectionary made Plain and Easy. London, 1762. (web link is the 1800 edition)

Rundell, Maria. A New System of Domestic Cookery, Formed Upon Principles of Economy and Adapted to the Use of Private Families. By a Lady. Boston: W Andrews, 1807

Mollard, John . The art of cookery made easy and refined: comprising ample directions for preparing every article requisite for furnishing the tables of the nobleman, gentleman, and tradesman . London, Printed for the author, and sold by J. Nunn, 1802

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Resources to research and explore the culinary arts of the colonial period in North America.
Please let me know of these links stop working or if you have found new resources to share.
The Virtual Colonial Cookbook Collection